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Can a Post on Social Media Violate a PFA?

Free Consultation: 412.780.0008 The answer to this question is:  Maybe.   The violation of a PFA involves a criminal proceeding called an “indirect criminal contempt” action, or ICC.  The burden of proof is “beyond a reasonable doubt” and with criminal penalties applying (including incarceration), an ICC determination must comport to criminal law.  In criminal law,… Continue reading Can a Post on Social Media Violate a PFA?

Biological · child · Child support · Families · Lawyer · Parent · Paternity · Uncategorized

Paternity by Estoppel – Has it Survived?

Pennsylvania has long clung to the presumption of paternity by estoppel, which means simply:  if you hold yourself out as the parent, you are the parent, even if you are not the biological parent.  Under this fiction, DNA evidence is not admissible.  Some states are moving away from this somewhat archaic presumption.    In the holding of… Continue reading Paternity by Estoppel – Has it Survived?